Low Carb

No.

End of post?  Well, perhaps not, as so many people seem to think there are.  I have written about cholesterol before (“On Statins, Cholesterol and the Like“) but I am still getting questions, so perhaps I’d better explain.  But first a simple test.  Can you tell the difference between the various pictures below?

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Bus

Taxi

People

People

[hr] [clearboth]

We hear about cholesterol and we hear about HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.  HDL and LDL are not cholesterol. They are vehicles for transporting cholesterol, hence the silly question above.

For cholesterol: think “people”.  For HDL think “bus” and for LDL think “taxi”.  HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) and LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) are the vehicles used to carry cholesterol around your body.

Cholesterol is vital: it’s in pretty much every cell of your body, and it is nearly all (over 80%) manufactured in your liver.  The amount of cholesterol derived from dietary sources is pretty low.  After your liver has manufactured cholesterol it is loaded into taxis and shipped out to whichever part of your body needs new cholesterol.  Worn out cholesterol is loaded onto buses and shipped back for repair or discard.

Now, what is of interest is, do you have big taxis or small taxis, and how crowded is the highway?  Buses are no problem, big taxis are no problem; it’s having rush-hour numbers of small taxis that causes hardening of the arteries.

High LDL-P

High LDL-P (Mumbai tuk tuk taxis)
(Courtesy Joel Duncan Photography)

The big taxis come from eating animal-based food, by and large.  The tuk-tuks come from eating carbohydrates. Don’t take it from this old man.  Hear a top expert on “It’s not the passengers, it’s the cars”.  You will hear them talk about particles.  Those are particles of LDL: that’s taxis.  LDL particles come as big and fluffy (big taxis) or small and hard (tuk tuks).  When they talk about LDL-P that’s a count of particles: how crowded the road is.  When they mention atherosclerosis, that’s what we non-medical folk call “hardening of the arteries”.

Here’s Dr Tara Dall:

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fLuxjQ2s6s

For more information, the “go-to” place is Chris Masterjohn’s http://www.cholesterol-and-health.com/, but he’s not the only one.  The good folks at http://coconutoil.com/ are also talking about it: “Putting The Myth To Rest: There Is No Such Thing As Bad Cholesterol“.

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I am a member of three on-line “keto communities”, as well as blogging about ketogenic diets myself:

A frequent question in these communities is “what should I eat?”  This question might mean “what proportion of carbs, proteins, and fats should I eat?”  It might mean “what actual foods can I eat, and in what quantities?”  In every case the answer is always “it depends …” which is highly frustrating for the person asking the question.

There are some calculators out there, but quite a few people, especially those less confident as computer users, or less confident with math (or both) have had trouble using them.  This blog post intends to help!

At the moment it is only talking about one calculator, Martin Ankerl‘s Keto Calculator: http://keto-calculator.ankerl.com/.  This video should explain all.  Below are some links that you might find helpful.  Some notes appear as the video runs: you will find them easier to read if you make the video full screen (click the icon in the bottom right of the video).

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyRnunLjDvI

kcal or kilo-calories.  It’s all very confusing, but a calorie is the amount of heat that it takes to warm up one cc of water by one degree centigrade.  A Calorie (with a capital “C”), also known as a kilo-calorie (kcal) is what nutritionists use, and most people just lose the “k” and don’t bother with the capital “C”.  So, if you see kcal or kilo-calorie, just know that that is what dieters call a “calorie”.  Summary: don’t worry: ignore the “k”!

Basic Metabolic Rate: The energy it takes to stay alive without losing or gaining weight.

Lean Body Mass: How heavy you would be if you had no body fat.  Note: if you had NO body fat, you would be dead!  You always need some, just to stay alive.

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B00BKRQ4E8" locale="us" height="107" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/31Bq256DbwL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B00BKRQ4E8" locale="uk" height="107" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/31Bq256DbwL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B0077L8YOO" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41Gn7SxiNWL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B0077L8YOO" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41Gn7SxiNWL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]

[clearboth]

Body Fat Percentage: What percentage of your weight is body fat.  There are various ways of measuring it.  Many fancy modern bathroom scales will do it for you, if you just step on in bare feet.  Pictures on the left for USA, on the right for UK.

A simpler method is to look at pictures of people, labelled with their body fat, and pick out the nearest to you.  There is a good set of body-fat pictures here.

MFP: My Fitness Pal — software to help you keep a food and exercise log, and work out what you have eaten in terms of carbs, protein and fats.  (It’s free!)  Go to their home page, scroll down a little and watch the video.  I am not going to create a MyFitnessPal “how to” video, because there are dozens on You Tube.  Here’s one I picked at random:

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReLbeXq0vTI

That’s it for now: I will be adding a tutorial on http://www.eatthismuch.com/ a little later.

Effective Exercise: I believe that Nordic Walking is the best exercise for people on a ketogenic diet.  Overview here, “How to Get Started with Nordic Walking” here, Who can do Nordic Walking here.

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

Everyone is talking about ketogenic diets (including me):

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

and a number of people want to know, in the simplest sense, what it is.

The human body is defined as “dual fuel”.  Just as my mate JP’s car can run on petrol or LPG (gasoline or Liquid Petroleum Gas), so the human body can run on glucose or fat.

When the body is burning fat to get energy it does it by converting the fat to ketones, and burns those.

Many of us in the west, eating a typical western 21st century diet have damaged our bodies so that they rarely burn fat, they just store it.  That’s because we eat too many carbohydrates.  Some get used for energy: the rest get stored as fat.

If we cut way down (and I do mean WAY down) on eating carbohydrates our bodies are forced to start using our stored fat as fuel, converting the fat to ketones.  A way of eating that achieves this is called a Ketogenic Diet.

Ketogenic Diets were first used therapeutically in the early part of the 20th century, to help people with epilepsy.  Those diets were not very pleasant.

In the 21st century we know much more and eating a keto diet is more delicious, and much more healthy.

By the way: “in a nutshell” is apposite: nuts are allowed on a ketogenic diet”!

[hr]

That’s the end of the quick answer.  Read on if you want to know a bit more.

To the casual observer a ketogenic diet looks like a paleo or primal diet looks like a low-carb diet.  They do all roughly live in the same box.

Firstly, what do we mean by paleo/primal?  The “rough” idea is that it turns out that paleolithic man (from roughly 2,0000,000 years ago up to roughly 10,000 years ag0) was pretty healthy: those folk weren’t obese, didn’t die of heart attacks, obesity, etc.  So we wonder what they ate.  Some folk get a bit “religious” about this, saying that those folks didn’t have (say) butter, so we shouldn’t eat butter.  Others say that butter fits right in (it certainly does in a keto diet).

Here’s Kurt Harris, MD, who describes himself as an “Archevore”

An Archevore is someone who eats based on essential principles, and also someone who hungers for essential principles. Take your pick.

I think Kurt’s blog post “The Only Reasonable Paleo Principle” makes a huge amount of sense, so I’ll leave you to read that.

There are a million other things that you can read, but I am working on a study guide, and I’ll put all those things in there, so hang on: they will appear soon!

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0983490708" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51OSaAmDQJL._SL160_.jpg" width="107"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="0983490708" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51OSaAmDQJL._SL160_.jpg" width="107"]If you can’t wait, this is probably the best book on the subject (UK version on the left, USA version on the right).

Joseph Arcita, Before and After

This post is a meta-guide!

(That means it’s a guide to a guide).

This is Joseph Arcita: on the left is a “before” picture and on the right is “after”.  Click the pictures to read Joseph’s story.

Part of his story is his use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as his nutritional plan.  KD is something that interests me greatly: I am a frequent contributor to Mark Maunder’s Basic Ketogenic Diet blog and to two Facebook groups: The Ketogenic Diet Group (it’s a closed group, but you can ask to join), and Ketogenic Dieters, an open group with close to 500 members.

And I have blogged about this stuff before: On Ketogenic Diets back in December 2012, particularly looking at the reports of the effects of ketosis on cancer, and I also summarised and commented on some (203!) of the comments on Mark’s blog “203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet” in February 2013.

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

On the FB groups people are often asking how to get started, and there is food advice there.  But today someone pointed me to Joseph Arcita’s “A Guide to Ketosis“.  It has to be one of the most comprehensive guides I’ve seen.  I hope he turns it into a book.

It is so comprehensive that you might like to know what’s in it: here’s the Table of Contents (copied and pasted from his site, so all of these links are clickable).  I have one or two minor points of contention (like there is no “good” and “bad” cholesterol; it’s all good, and you need it … but what he probably means is small-particle Low-Density-Lipoprotein) and I’ll discuss those at the end of this post.  But if you never get that far, don’t worry: the man is a hero!  Joseph says:

Here is the guide to ketosis. The contents of this article can be located here. If you’re currently wondering what on earth ketosis even is, then you’re in luck for I plan not only to befuddle but also to enlighten. All you have to do is read on.

I’ve personally had fantastic results on keto, and I really believe in the validity of this diet – not only in terms of fat-loss, but also in terms of health-gain. There is a lot of understandable skepticism and tons of misconceptions about keto; I want to let newcomers know, however surprising it may be, that keto (or at least a diet low in grains/sugars and high in fats) is a very healthy diet with numerous benefits.

This guide is very long so I’ve partitioned this post into subsections. The links contained within the contents are ‘clickable’ and will transport you directly to that section. You can also right click and select “copy link address” of a particular section/section title, and you can either bookmark it so that you can return to a specific section easily or you can give the link to a friend if you want them to read a particular section. If you want to return to the contents of the page simply click on the ‘upwards’ arrows that are next to each of the section titles within the main article.

I. Why You Should Care About Ketosis: The Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet
1A. Ketosis Increases Neuronal Stabilization and Mental Focus
1B. Ketosis Promotes the Loss of Body-Fat and LDL Cholesterol
1C. Ketosis Eliminates Various Ailments such as Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension
1D. Ketosis Treats Several Diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Various Cancers
1E. Ketosis Promotes Cardiovascular Health
1F. Ketosis Preserves Lean-Body Mass
1G. One Will Lose Body-fat More Quickly on Keto Than Not
1H. Ketosis Blunts Appetite and Increases Meal Satiety

NOTE:  Unless you are of a VERY scientific frame of mind, SKIP SECTION TWO!!!

Summary: Metabolism is how your body gets energy.
Human bodies can do it a number of ways
You can “burn” glucose, or you can “burn” fat.
How this happens is pretty complicated: show it to you doctor; there’s probably an evens chance that he/she won’t understand it, either!
Quoting Joseph:

In other words, under a ketogenic metabolism, the body uses dietary and bodily fats as its primary energy source.

It is possible to induce the initiation of this metabolism thru a careful diet; this diet must contain limited amounts of carbohydrates, sugars, and proteins, and should be comprised primarily of fats.

II. Understanding Ketosis; An Overview of Metabolism 
2A. Metabolism Defined
2B. The Krebs Cycle
2C. Glycolysis
2D. Fat Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation
2E. Citrate Synthase Inhibition and Beta-ketothiolase Activation
2F. Ketogenesis and Ketosis

He refers to LBM=Lean Body Mass — what would be left if you lost all of your fat.  You never do want to lose all of your fat, but most of us could do with less fat and more lean.

He also refers to “energy deficit”.  In a nutshell: if you are big you won’t need to count calories at first, because a keto diet leaves you feeling full and you won’t eat so much.  But weight loss always does require consuming less calories than you use, so as you get close to your goal weight, or close to your goal for lean body mass, you may need to count calories.

III. The Basics of the Ketogenic Diet 
3A. Entering Ketosis: A Macro Ratio for Keto

PUFAs: summary: you will lose weight faster:

 if a majority of your fat percentage comes from things like seeds, nuts, oils, and fatty fish

It also says that there is NO science that says that butter is bad for you (you’ll see why if you get the science; otherwise skip to section 3C.)

3B. Saturated vs. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
3C. Sample Ketogenic Meal Plan
3D. The Wonders of Fiber
3E. How to Enter Ketosis Quickly, Easily, and Reliably
3F. How to Know You’re Under Ketosis
3G. The Gloom of Induction
3H. Losing Body-Fat
3I. Building Muscle-Mass

Summary: Don’t do intensive exercise once you’re in ketosis.  My own recommendation is Nordic Walking: http://www.WalkingForHappiness.co.uk

3J. Aerobic Exercise
3K. Glycogen Refeeding
3L. Reentering Glycolysis Correctly
3M. A list of Ketogenic Foods
3N. Step by Step Guide to the SKD, TKD, and CKD

IV. Keto Testimonials 
4A. ladysixstring
4B. Dominaterisk
4C. sepatown
4D. vgisverbose

V. Useful Resources and Websites for the Keto-Minded 
5A. The Cook’s Thesaurus
5B. Restaurant Nutrition Facts
5C. Keto Macro-Nutrient Calculator
5D. Keto Goods Online
5E. Keto Recipes Galore
5F. Further Information

VI. Keto FAQ 
6A. What is the ketogenic diet in simple terms?
6B. Is ketosis unhealthy?
6C. Is ketosis unnatural?
6D. How can you lose fat if you eat fat?
6E. Is it best to bulk on keto or on a normal diet?
6F. Are ketostix reliable?
6G. Please leave any questions in the comments.

There is no excerpt because this is a protected post.

From Junk Food Science

In the low-carb, paleo, keto world, we’re always banging on about the advantages of eating bacon, but some people have concerns.

One set is about eating saturated fat.  Worry not: the “science” that says that saturated fat is bad for your arteries is wrong, but I’ll deal with that elsewhere.  Another concern is is with nitrates and nitrites: don’t they cause cancer?

Well, there seems to be some conflicting evidence, but here are some references that suggest not.  To summarise: bacon is preserved pork: nitrates are naturally occurring substances that have been used for centuries to turn belly pork into bacon.  Nitrates occur in the soil, and in many vegetables; in fact bacon that is advertised as “no added nitrates” is not really telling the truth: they use celery (sounds healthy) which is a good source of nitrates.

One of the posts below opens with this eye-catching question:

Which of these sources will give you the most ingested nitrites:

467 servings of hotdogs

1 serving arugula

2 servings butterhead lettuce

4 servings celery or beets

your spit

The answer is obvious … or is it?

You’ll have to do the reading to find the answer, but I think you’ll be surprised!

It’s a longer story than that, of course, and if you want chapter and verse (some people need to track down the research, and that is important), here are some starting points.

Facts About Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrite
Good or Bad? Nitrates and Nitrites in Food
The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs
Nitrates In Vegetables Protect Against Gastric Ulcers, Study Shows
Does banning hotdogs and bacon make sense?
The “No Nitrites Added” Hoax
Toxicity of Sodium Nitrite (Wikipedia)
The Nitrate and Nitrite Myth: Another Reason not to Fear Bacon
“The fear of nitrates from bacon has no basis in reality”
NTP Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Sodium Nitrite (11MB PDF)

(This list originally compiled by Roger D Enochs)

Roger posted a quote from the PDF:

Under the conditions of this 2-year drinking water study, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in male or female F344/N rats exposed to 750, 1,500, or 3,000 ppm. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 750, 1,500, or 3,000 ppm. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in female B6C3F1 mice based on the positive trend in the incidences of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (combined) of the forestomach.
Exposure to sodium nitrite in drinking water resulted in increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia in the forestomach of male and female rats and in the glan- dular stomach of male mice.
Decreased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia occurred in male and female rats.
Further, the USDA standard for for nitrate and nitrite levels in food[2] limits it to 200 ppm for nitrate and nitrite combined. We get much more dietary nitrate from vegetables than from cured meat, unless you eat a diet of primarily cured meat.
As established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the Meat Inspection Regulations cited above, the use of nitrites, nitrates, or combinations of them cannot result in more than 200 parts per million (ppm), calculated as sodium nitrite, in the finished product.
It has been estimated that 10 percent of the human exposure to nitrite in the digestive tract comes from cured meats and 90 percent comes from vegetables and other sources. Nitrates can be reduced to nitrites by certain microorganisms present in foods and in the gastrointestinal tract. This has resulted in nitrite toxicity in infants fed vegetables with a high nitrate level. No evidence currently exists implicating nitrite itself as a carcinogen.
The 200 ppm level is well below the levels used in the above tests (750-5000 ppm), and even those high levels found no links to cancer (at least in rodents). Perhaps there are other health issues, but cancer is the one I always hear about, and the evidence does not appear to be there. A quick search didn’t turn up any research regarding nitrates and the liver.”

Haas or Fuerte Avocado

REALLY dark Haas

REALLY dark Haas

This is the first of a series of post that I will be doing which are more about micro-nutrients than continuing to push the macro-nutrient wars (HFLC vs LFHC).

There doesn’t seem to be much warring going on in the area of micro-nutrients, and I think it’s vital that all of us who care about our health to understand the importance of nutrition, as opposed to just where do the calories come from. Anyway, much more of that in the future, but for now I am hunting down foods that are nutrient dense and which fit right in with eating well (whether you’re eating paleo or trying to stick to the “official” food pyramid).

And my food of choice today is the avocado, which is healthy in more ways than several!  In particular, you should be eating avocado with your salads and veggies! Why?  Because a lot vitamins and antioxidants in your veg are fat-soluble.  That means, if there’s no fat in your diet those vital nutrients go in your mouth and straight out the other end, without touching the sides!  But if you have some slices of avocado in the same meal, you not only get all the incredible nutrients in the avocado, but the heart-healthy fats in the avocado (similar to those in olive oil) will carry the nutrients from the salad or veggies into your system, where they can be used.

Florida Avocado

But there are two main types of avocado (well, actually there are loads … for a complete rundown check out this post from Food Republic: “Know Your Avocado Varieties And When They’re In Season“).  The two main types that people know about are the larger, smooth-skinned “Florida” (picture courtesy of The Witchy Kitchen) and the smaller, dark and bumpy-skinned Haas or “California” avocado (what we buy looks more like the picture up right).

But which is better?

Well, each has their fans, Floridians saying that the California is oily, Californians saying that the Florida is watery.  As I live part of every year in Florida I set out hopefully to show that the Florida avocado is more nutritious, but I’m afraid I bombed on my mission.  Using the USDA Nutritional database, the Haas scores higher on just about every nutrient:

 Units

Florida

California

Difference

Water

g

78.81

72.33

-8.22%

Energy

kcal

120

167

39.17%

Protein

g

2.23

1.96

-12.11%

Total lipid (fat)

g

10.06

15.41

53.18%

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

7.82

8.64

10.49%

Fiber, total dietary

g

5.6

6.8

21.43%

Sugars, total

g

2.42

0.3

-87.60%

Calcium, Ca

mg

10

13

30.00%

Iron, Fe

mg

0.17

0.61

258.82%

Magnesium, Mg

mg

24

29

20.83%

Phosphorus, P

mg

40

54

35.00%

Potassium, K

mg

351

507

44.44%

Sodium, Na

mg

2

8

300.00%

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.4

0.68

70.00%

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

17.4

8.8

-49.43%

Thiamin

mg

0.021

0.075

257.14%

Riboflavin

mg

0.053

0.143

169.81%

Niacin

mg

0.672

1.912

184.52%

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.078

0.287

267.95%

Folate, DFE

µg

35

89

154.29%

Vitamin A, RAE

µg

7

7

0.00%

Vitamin A, IU

IU

140

147

5.00%

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

mg

2.66

1.97

-25.94%

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)

21

100.00%

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

1.96

2.126

8.47%

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

5.513

9.799

77.74%

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

1.676

1.816

8.35%

You can see from the numbers that  those who describe Florida avocados as watery are right (their water content is higher) and those who describe Haas as “oily” are also right: their fat content is 50% higher!

So, if all you care about is low fat and low calorie, you will choose the Florida avocado (but, be aware these figures are “per 100 grams”.  A Florida avocado is much bigger than a Haas, so you will probably end up with more calories anyway).  And notice that the Florida might be lower in calories, but it is much higher in sugars, so if carbs are your concern, rather than calories, you will choose the Haas every time.

And if you want those good, heart-healthy fats to help carry all the vitamins and minerals to where they can be used, Haas scores again, as well as the significantly higher amounts of vitamins and minerals.  So, sorry Florida!  I wish I could be promoting my home state.  Maybe some Florida farmers can start producing Haas; here’s someone whose granny has grown a Haas tree in Florida.

Personally, I turn most of my avocados into guacamole, add some of my special high-fat home-made mayo, and often add some other nutrient dense favourites.  My current batch of guac is a slightly strange colour because I added turmeric!  Tastes OK though, and turmeric is a master spice.  More on that later.

Why We Get Fat

Why We Get Fat by Gary Taubes

My lovely friend, Kali Harmen, recommended that I read Why We Get Fat by Gary Taubes, and I sighed, deeply!

It is an occupational hazard of being overweight (in America the current politically correct term is “a person of size”!) that every second person wants you to read their favourite book, and when you run a website called Live Free From Obesity the frequency rises dramatically!

Why We Get Fat: Kindle Edition

Why We Get Fat: Kindle Edition

But I rate Kali’s opinion, so I thought I’d at least follow the link to Amazon, discovered that it’s only £4.05 on the Kindle (or on my iPad), thought “what the heck” and downloaded it just before Susan and I jumped into the car to head to Gatwick to catch the plane to Florida (to look after her sick Mom).

I had wanted to go to bed early, because we had to be at the airport early, but I started reading it in bed in the hotel and had to force myself to put it down and go to sleep at about 01:00am.  By the time we landed in Orlando the next day I had read it one and a half times.

Gary is a science writer, but/and a very good one.  He has been fascinated by all the bad (or non-existent) science behind nutritional advice, both in the USA and the rest of the world.

Gary’s theme is that we “people of size” (not his term) don’t get to be this way because we eat too much and exercise too little.  And in the first half of the book he completely demolishes “gluttony and sloth” as adequate explanations for obesity.  Gary says that we don’t get fat because we eat too much, but that we eat too much because we are growing fat.  Does that scramble your brain?  It did mine, until Gary talked about teenage boys.

We all know that teenage boys have growth spurts.  We know that teenage boys eat a lot, and any of us who have had anything to do with teenage boys know that they can appear very lazy.  But no-one would think to say “my son is growing tall because he eats too much”.  We wouldn’t think of saying that the boy is growing tall because he never gets out of bed.  We know that his hormones have triggered the growth spurt, and that his system craves more energy to fuel the growth spurt … and takes so much energy in making him grow tall, that he frequently doesn’t have the energy to get out of bed.

So why would it be any different if we’re growing width-wise as opposed to height-wise?

But why do we get fat?  Popular wisdom says that it’s all down to the 1st law of thermodynamics, and that you can’t deny the physics.  Take more calories in than you expend through exercise, and you’re bound to get fatter.  Hmm, says Gary.  Imagine there are a row of rooms and each of these rooms has an entrance door and an exit door.  Now imagine that a crowd of people is moving through the rooms.  But one room has many more people in it than all the rest.  You ask me why, and I say it’s because more people are entering that room than leaving it, and you look at me as though I’m losing the plot.  ”Well, obviously!”  but why?  I have just stated the obvious, without any sort of explanation.

That’s the same as saying that I’m fat because I ate too much and didn’t exercise enough.  Yes.  Obviously.  But Why?  Again, popular wisdom would say that it’s obvious that I’m a greedy, lazy slob.

Well, maybe.

But nowadays we get children as young as 6 months old who are obese.  Can it be that they are already greedy and lazy?  Unlikely.

Gary explains how it’s all down to our endocrine system, and gives us a series of lessons: Adiposity 101, Endocrinology 101, etc.  I can’t reproduce the entire book here: go get your own copy!

But if you’d like to sample Gary’s writing before lashing out a whole £4.05 for the Kindle edition, or a massive £4.49 for the paperback, try some of his New York Times articles:

A good place to start is with “What If It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie“, published in the NYT in 2002.

Next try “Is Sugar Toxic“, a response in the NYT (April 2011) to the runaway viral success of Robert Lustig’s You Tube video, which I wrote about in my “Truth About Sugar” blog post back in early April.

But maybe you’d like to see and hear Gary.  He did a lecture at Crossfit (a physical training outfit for people serious about getting fit: that Crossfit link is scary, but Crossfit is actually for everyone: check out this story in Sydney, Australia.) and the lecture was videoed and posted in three parts on You Tube: here they are:

Gary Taubes Cross Fit Talk, Part 1

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obUBaclfsys

Gary Taubes Cross Fit Talk, Part 2

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNFlbRjOeHA

Gary Taubes Cross Fit Talk, Part 3

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KSq_J5acEto

The Diet Delusion

The Diet Delusion

In that lecture Gary referred several times to his first (500 page) book, called Good Calories — Bad Calories in the USA, and The Diet Delusion in the UK.

If you want to study this stuff in depth, or you’d like to see what a serious scientific investigative journalist can get up to for five years, then this is the book for you!

It arrived Friday morning (today is Saturday) and I’m just a couple of chapters in, but already I am enthralled.

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="1439190275" locale="us" height="110" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51C4YyKhT2L._SL110_.jpg" width="73"]Just by way of interest: having read Why We Get Fat on the plane to Orlando, I decided (despite having two week’s worth of Lipotrim in my case) to try Gary’s eating plan.  I ate really well: eggs and bacon for breakfast (with mushrooms and tomatoes), cold meats and salad for lunch, and steaks, broccoli, salads for dinner.  My weight dropped slightly (I had been worried it might soar!).  My blood sugar continued to fall, and my blood pressure fell slightly.

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0345484045" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51-h3UmqMEL._SL160_.jpg" width="127"]I will return to Lipotrim, just as soon as I have the psychological and emotional support I need in place, to go through what Atkins would call the Induction Phase.  I will be writing blog posts about Atkins, The Gabriel Method, and about T-Tapp training, and will then start to tie all these together.

Watch this space!

I have been following up some Internet research for a good friend of mine who has followed the “Radical Nutrition Programme” of LFFO, has lost close on 60lbs and looks FABULOUS, but still has some problems.

Some of those are in the mind, and we’re working on that together, but this person also has all the symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome:

  • Can’t shift the weight around the middle, even though the BMI says you’re at a good weight
  • High Blood sugar that medication has difficulty shifting (insulin resistance)
  • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
  • High Cholesterol

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="1468161776" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41ZUxuOCjLL._SL160_.jpg" width="107"]There are other symptoms, but this is enough.  Susan found an article in “The Week” that was a summary of a longer article in the Daily Telegraph, called “The Bitter Truth About Sugar“.  It’s not a long article but it certainly inspired me to Google the scientist behind the article, Professor Robert Lustig of UCSF.  His video on You Tube (below) has had 2.25 million hits and makes compelling viewing: I just watched it in one go.  He argues that sugar is as toxic as ethanol (alcohol).  The table above summarises the argument: I still think it’s worth watching the video.

At times it gets a bit technical when he delves into the biochemistry, but he’s entertaining and keeps us with him, but if you’ve ever worried about your weight, you owe it to yourself to find the times to watch one of these videos.

Nobody chooses to be obese,” says Lustig. “Nobody. Especially not children. This is a global pandemic. D’you think, all of a sudden, everybody in the world became gluttons and sloths at the same time? Get with the programme!

Read the article and if it catches your attention, and either watch the short version of the video (26 minutes)

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=14ZIKOQkTiM

… or the long version (89 minutes)

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM

This isn’t just scare stuff: he suggests what we can do to help ourselves:

Lifestyle Intervention

  1. Get rid of all sugared liquids–only water and milk
  2. Eat your carbohydrate with fibre
  3. Wait 20 minutes for second portions
  4. Buy your “screen time” minute-for-minute with physical activity.

Also, get some exercise: not because you’ll burn the calories (it takes a LOT of exercise to burn a Big Mac!), but because:

Why is exercise important in obesity?

  1. Because it improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity
  2. Becasue it reduces stress and resultant cortisol release
  3. Because it makes the TCA cycle (the basic process that digests food and produces energy) run faster, detoxifies fructose, and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity.

Also, he’s heavy on making sure that you have plenty of fibre in your diet:

Why Is Fibre Important in Obesity?

“When God Made the Poison,
He packaged it with the antidote”

Fructose is a poison, but wherever it appears in nature, it’s packaged with way more fibre.

Fibre:

  1. Reduces the rate of intestinal carbohydrate absorption, reducing insulin response (Fat or Fart)
  2. Increases speed of transit of intestinal contents, raising PYY 3-36 and thus induces satiety signal sooner
  3. Inhibits absorption of some free fatty acids to the colon, which are metabolized by colonic bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which suppress insulin

So, here’s the summary of the message:

  • Fructose consumption has increased in the last 30 years, coinciding with the obesity epidemic
  • A calorie is not a calorie (fructose is not glucose)
  • You are not what you eat, you are what you do with what you eat
  • Fructose metabolism in the liver leads to Metabolic Syndrome
  • Consuming fructose interferes with obesity intervention
  • Fructose is a chronic liver toxin: it’s alcohol without the buzz.

Here’s an excellent infographic from an article (The Amazing Similarities Between this Toxic Sugar and Alcohol) on Mercola’s website with a wealth of info:
fructose overload infographic

Discover the fructose content of common foods, beverages, sauces, and even sugar substitutes in our infographic “Fructose Overload.” Use the embed code to share it on your website.

fructose overload infographic

Discover the fructose content of common foods, beverages, sauces, and even sugar substitutes in our infographic “Fructose Overload.”

I first wrote this post a year or so ago.  Since then I have learned some things that I didn’t know back then, which means I need to make a few changes.  There are a number of “great debates” in the weight loss world, and one of the biggest is “CICO vs GCBC”.  That is, the “calories in, calories out model” (eat less, exercise more: you can’t gainsay the physics) versus the “Good Calories Bad Calories” model (not all calories are created equal … some foods will have a worse effect than other foods).  Intellectually I have come to believe and follow the GCBC model … but my personal experience says that CICO is also true; you can’t gainsay the physics.  Even when you’re eating exclusively good calories, too many of them will make you fat!

This post was, originally, based exclusively on CICO … I will make notes where I think we need to make an adjustment.  To get an idea of why all calories are not created equal, check out my post on my number one nutritional-science guru, Gary Taubes: “Why We Get Fat“.

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When I first started this odyssey I was “morbidly obese”: I had a Body Mass Index (BMI) just over 40. That meant I was 9 stones (126 lbs, 57 kg) overweight.

Conventional wisdom suggests a safe rate to lose weight is 1 lb per week. At that rate it would have taken me about two and a half years to get to goal weight. Actually, on the sort of nutritional regime that achieves a one-pound-a-week weight loss, it will take forever, because the last few pounds just won’t come off.

The first time I did this, I lost 7 stones (100 lbs, 45 kg) in 30 weeks, cured myself of various problems along the way (like Type II diabetes), and was never healthier in my entire life.

That same conventional wisdom that says only lose a pound a week also suggests, variously, only weighing yourself once per week, or once per month, or throwing the scales away altogether.VLCD

Nonsense. Weigh yourself every hour for two days, then every day.

I guess I better justify these bold assertions. After all, I am not medically qualified, and I’m not a professional nutritionist.

I am a fat bloke who wanted to stay alive. I am also an intelligent man, capable of reading, researching (I have a Master of Philosophy, M.Phil. degree; that’s a sort of “PhD Lite”), and forming reasonable hypotheses that I can test on myself.

Safe Rate for Weight Loss

So let’s examine where this “1 lb per week safe limit” argument comes from, and to do that, we need to get into a little (very simple, I promise) science.

Our bodies need food. I want to use the a metaphor: “The Body is Like a Car”.

The body (I’m just considering physical stuff here; mental, emotional, creative, spiritual, social and cultural considerations I’ll deal with in “Together We Can”) needs food for three things:

  1. Fuel (Petrol, Diesel, Gas)
  2. Maintenance (Spare parts)
  3. Getting maintained (the motor repair person)

Fuel is calories. The body uses it up doing absolutely everything it does, from just staying alive, through thinking hard, to running a marathon, and everything in between.

Maintenance is vitamins, minerals and amino acids. These are the building blocks that are used for constantly repairing, growing and rebuilding our bodies.

The “repair person” function is carried out by certain enzymes and other substances that catalyze (cause to happen) changes in our bodies.

All foods contain these three components in different proportions. The reason why people criticize “junk food” is because it contains loads of fuel and almost no spare parts or repair people.

The body, like a car, can store fuel for later use. However, a car has a fixed-size fuel tank. When it’s full, adding more just causes a mess on the filling-station forecourt.

The body, however, just grows the fuel tank to contain all the extra fuel you add. In extreme cases that means the body is almost nothing but a great heaving, wobbling fuel store. The trouble there is that the body becomes so ungainly and difficult to move, that it’s really hard to actually use up this excess fuel. That means you have more fat (which doesn’t use fuel) and less lean muscle (which does use fuel), so your fuel consumption drops whilst your fuel store goes up.

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Another way that your body is unlike most cars is that your body can have a reserve fuel tank that has a one-way valve.  You can add more fuel to your reserves, but then be unable to actually use it up.  More of that later on.

[hr]

How much fuel do we need?

Well, that depends. If you were lying in a coma in a hospital bed, you’d still be using fuel.  They say that your brain uses up around 600 calories a day (although I know some people where I would swear it’s less!)

When I first owned a car, cars were very simple things. If you turned off the lights and the ignition … that was it; it was totally inert.

But my big blue Mercedes uses electricity all the time, whether I’m driving it or not. The clock, the car’s engine computer, the security system are all using power, whether I’m driving it or not (as I learned to my cost when I came back from a three-month trip and had to pay £200 for a new battery, and silly money to the Mercedes garage for resetting all the systems so they worked again–I’ve got rid of that car now!).

This underlying rate of energy consumption is called your “Basal Metabolic Rate”, and differs, based on your gender, weight, height. Here’s how Wikipedia defines BMR:

Basal metabolic rate (BMR), and the closely related resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the amount of daily energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans).
The release of energy in this state is sufficient only for the functioning of the vital organs, the heart, lungs, nervous system, kidneys, liver, intestine, sex organs, muscles and skin.

BMR changes with age, gender, height and weight.

On top of your BMR requirement is the energy you need for normal daily functioning: getting up, getting dressed, washed, fed, to work, etc. This total amount of energy is called your Daily Calorie Needs, and can be anything from 1.2 to 1.9 times your BMR.

And here’s the simple truth. Eat more calories than your Daily Calorie Needs, and your body will store the excess energy. Eat less and your body will make up the difference from the energy store.

In even simpler and balder language: eat more than you need and you’ll get fat, eat less than you need and you’ll get thin.

[hr]

The difference in the Good Calorie – Bad Calorie model is that our endocrine systems can get damaged, in which case eating less may not make you thin, and even eating small amounts can make you fat.  If your waist measurement is larger than your hip measurement, then this may already have started happening for you.

[hr]

HOWEVER … if all your requirements come from food, then eating less calories means you are also eating less spare parts and “maintenance people”.. To avoid linguistic clumsiness, from here on I will just divide food into fuel and nutrition.

Here’s the danger; cut down on food in order to cut down on excess calories, and you’re in danger of cutting down on nutrition, too. Do that and you’ll get ill; maybe even die.

Where does the boundary lie between reducing calories to lose weight and not endangering your health? Let’s do a little sum.

A pound of fat contains 3500 calories. So, to lose a pound a week you’ll need to consume 3500 calories a week less than you use. A woman who needs around 1250 calories per day, or 8750 per week would need to cut her food intake by about 60% to lose a pound a week. If all she does is stay on the same diet, but just reduce quantities, you can see she’s going to be in BIG trouble: 60% less calories, but also 60% less nutrition.

But how about if there was some way to get 100% of the nutrition you need, at very low calorie levels?

Welcome to the Very Low Calorie Diet, or VLCD. My diet is incredibly well formulated to give me all the vitamins, minerals and enzymes I need to get top-notch, fabulous nutrition, but only 500 calories per day.

I’ll do a worked example, but, for the math-phobic among you, I’ll put all the sums in an appendix. It comes out that on my 500-calorie a day VLCD I will, based on my today’s weight, lose 6.6 lbs a day.

Of course, tomorrow I’ll be about a pound lighter, so the BMR equation will change, so I’ll either get very good with a calculator, or I’ll build a spreadsheet (which I have; have a look at it or download it from here).

There’s one more thing to explain.

How The Body Stores and Uses Energy

The body stores energy in two forms, one available for quick access in the short term, and one for longer-term use.

The evolutionary need was for, on the one hand, a rapidly available energy store that could be used for flight or fight, or chase, or sex. On the other hand, we needed a slower-release energy store to get us through the winter and spring, when there wasn’t much food around.

For short-term, rapid uptake use, our bodies store glycogen in our liver and our muscles. For long term use, energy is stored as fat, which has a second use to keep us warm.

When we start a VLCD the glycogen is the first thing to go, and glycogen bonds with five times it’s own weight of water, hence for the first few days we pee every 90 minutes, morning, noon, and night, and the weight absolutely falls off. It looks exciting on the scales, but it is only water!

How do we know when the glycogen is all gone? We enter a state known as “ketosis” (not to be confused with ketoacidosis). We know we are in ketosis when:

  1. We stop feeling hungry,
  2. We stop peeing every 90 minutes,
  3. If we pee on a “ketostix” strip (get them from our store) it goes purple,
  4. Our teeth start to fur up, and we start leaving toothbrushes and toothpaste around the house for immediate use,
  5. Our weight loss conforms to the above equations.
  6. Our brain starts to get sharper.

It’s important to stay in ketosis for reasons 1 and 6. And you do that by sticking strictly to the diet. Any little extras (not so much as a slice of lemon in a glass of water) are liable to kick you out of ketosis.

I have experienced (6) above. Apparently it’s because ketones fuel the brain instead of glucose.

[hr]

Since then being in ketosis and ketogenic diets have become even more important to me.  Check out my blog posts “On Ketogenic Diets” and “203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s ‘Basic Ketogenic Diet’“.

[hr]

I’ve Been Told to Throw My Scales Away

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B002JE2PSA" locale="us" height="103" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41zH94zSuwL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]No. Check out the Withings scales in our store. (We commute between the UK and the USA: in America I use the FitBit Aria scales[simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B0077L8YOO" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/314fN8XxK%2BL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]) They are not cheap, but they are very accurate scales that will weigh you and measure your body fat percentage, as well as calculate your BMI. They are worth every penny, because they are WiFi, and will report your weight on line.  You can keep that private; but we recommend making the details available to your doctor, and to your Live Free From Obesity group: when we are all monitoring each other’s weight, it has a highly motivating effect!

When you get them, weigh yourself every waking hour, day and night (and when you get up for a wee). They record your weight on a central website (only you can see it, unless you allow your Dr access), so you can do it half asleep.  Do this without dieting; just your normal lifestyle. After two days, look at the results. You will find that your weight can fluctuate by as much as 5-8 lbs (2-4 Kg) during the day.

This means that you can “lose” a pound simply by weighing yourself an hour later! And it means that a target weight loss of 1 lb per week can’t be detected … it’s lost in the “noise”.

Would you trust an airline pilot who didn’t look at his instruments? I wouldn’t. Your scales are your instruments: they tell you how you’re doing. And when you’re feeling all miserable because you can’t eat your favourite food, go weigh yourself; you’ll be so excited at another couple of pounds lost, that all your motivation will come back!

Won’t a VLCD Damage my Muscles?

No. I went from obese couch potato to walking 500 miles with Walking for Happiness. I did my first 200 miles whilst on my VLCD, and my longest walk was 15.5 miles in a day. VLCDs (ketogenic, low-carb diets) are known to be “muscle sparing”, or to even increase muscular endurance, and that has certainly been my experience.

Won’t a VLCD Cause My Metabolism to Slow Down?

No. That’s why weight loss is so rapid. It does that by sparing lean muscle mass. Something like 25 year’s research on Lipotrim has shown you can stay on it as long as you need to, to get to your healthy body weight.

I’ve Been Told to Come off a VLCD After Four weeks

NO NO NO NO NO! At least, not if you’re on a decent, nutrient-complete VLCD. That rule was invented by the US Post Office, 30 years ago, because, after a completely charlatan company poisoned people with a rubbish VLCD, they were worried that they could be sued if they delivered a VLCD to someone, and they died. Legal advice said that people could go with no nutrition at all for four weeks, so if they made that restriction, they were legally safe!

Why you shouldn’t come off, and go back to normal food is because there is a “re-feeding protocol” to use at the end of a VLCD, and then a “new you” protocol, for on-going maintenance. Ignore these and your food addiction will come back in spades, and you’ll pile all the weight back on. I know. I’ve been there!

Do it once. Do it properly. Follow the rules. Live healthily forever.

[hr]

… and there’s more.  When you cut way down on your carb intake, as you do on either a commercial or home-made VLCD (I don’t recommend this, because I can’t, because I’m not a doctor or a nutritionist.  However, when I am in America I can’t get my VLCD, which is only available in the UK, so I make my own), your body takes some time to switch from expecting to be able to run on glucose to making up it’s mind that it has to break down your body fat stores and run on ketones.  The more you yo-yo back and forth, the more your body doesn’t believe that you won’t give it any more carbs.  The cravings get worse, and, during the period when you aren’t eating carbs, but your body isn’t in ketosis, you really don’t have any energy, your brain is totally fogged and your headache just gets worse!

[hr]

What VLCD Should I use?

Ah, this is where I can’t recommend, only tell you what I did, and am doing. I followed, and am following the Lipotrim diet. The problem for anyone not in the UK is that Lipotrim is only available in the UK, and only through your GP or your pharmacist. There are two videos you can watch for more information, Lipotrim’s own video, and one made by Professor Dr David Haslam, chair of the National Obesity Forum.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLfih175fZg

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BspgMc_bk70

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Beware: In America you can find a product called Lipotrim.  It is not related in any way to the Lipotrim that’s available in the UK, and works (if it does work; I have no idea) on an entirely different principle.

[hr]

I have experienced all the advantages mentioned by Haslam in that video.

Originally, Lioptrim was developed by Dr Alan Howard, whose career at Cambridge University spanned 60 years. He has been responsible for developing a number of VLCDs, including Lipotrim, the Cambridge Diet, and, I believe, Lighterlife. Lipotrim is probably the most heavily researched of all the VLCDs; there’s masses of research documented on the Lipotrim website.

When I’m not on Lipotrim, I miss it. It tastes OK, and it is simple. I have tried varying Lipotrim with Cambridge, Exante, and Be-Yu. I only trust Lipotrim 100% because of all the research that has been done, because of the clinical supervision, and because it worked for me.

What Else Do I need?

You need psychological, emotional, cultural, spiritual and social help and support, and that isn’t provided anywhere in the world … which is why we are developing Live Free From Obesity, and Together We Can.

[hr]

And you need to understand that for the first 1.8 million years that humans were around, our bodies ran almost exclusively in ketosis, we were hugely more healthy than we are today, and we were capable of feats that today we would regard as “super human” … but more of that elsewhere!

[hr]

Appendix: The Maths

All this “maths” is in a  spreadsheet which makes it all very easy.  Check out the Live Free From Obesity maths spreadsheet here.

English BMR Formula

Women  BMR = 655 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) – ( 4.7 x age in years )
Men         BMR = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) – ( 6.8 x age in year )

Metric BMR Formula

Women  BMR = 655 + ( 9.6 x weight in kilos ) + ( 1.8 x height in cm ) – ( 4.7 x age in years )
Men        BMR = 66 + ( 13.7 x weight in kilos ) + ( 5 x height in cm ) – ( 6.8 x age in years )

I’ll do mine, in kg (because that’s what my scales register). This morning I was 133 kg, I am 193 cm tall, and 63 years old.

So my BMR is:
66 +(13.7 x 133) + (5 x 193) – (6.8 x 63)
66 + 1822 + 965 – 428 = 2424.

That’s what I need just to stay alive; my BMR.

Next we use something called the Harris-Benedict equation to see what my daily needs are.

With this amount of exercise

Multiply the BMR by this

Little to no exercise

1.2

Light exercise 1-3 days/week

1.38

Moderate exercise 3-5 days/week

1.55

Intense exercise 6-7 days/week

1.73

Extremely intense exercise 6-7 days/week

1.9

(That’s the same for men and women.) I reckon I should multiply by 1.55. That gives me a Daily Calorie Requirement of 3758. Let’s call it 3800 to make life easier.

But on my Very Low Calorie Diet, I only get 500 calories a day. That means each day I am 3300 calories short. Over a week that’s 3300 x 7 = 23,100 calories short each week.
And at 3500 calories per pound of fat, that means I’ll lose 23,100 / 3500 = 6.6 lbs per week.

NOTE

On 500 calories a day, you cannot and should not engage in heavy exercise; you will “run in to the brick wall” … something that long-distance runners experience if they haven’t “carb-loaded” sufficiently the day before.  I have experienced it twice: it’s a very weird feeling; you just have no energy to go on.

I like Nordic Walking (see our Walking For Happiness website).  I didn’t start walking until I was two weeks into the diet, and then built up slowly.  I will soon be posting an article on “How to Start Walking for Optimal Safe Weight Loss”.  Watch this space!

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