Healthy Diets and ScienceI have just discovered a really good resource for those interested in the science behind healthy nutrition, Healthy Diets and Science, by David Evans.

I’ll leave you to explore the over 1000 articles in there yourself, but I thought that people interested in the Ketogenic Diet might find these articles interesting:

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

The blog of Dr Michael Eades contains some tips about ketosis that:

  1. I have often found helpful,
  2. I frequently have trouble finding
  3. Make Hootsuite fall over

So I thought I’d usefully put them all in one place:

  1. Low-carbers beware the breathalyzer: On ketones, where they come from, where they go to. “The heart, for example, operates about 28 percent more efficiently on ketones than it does on glucose.”
  2. Metabolism and ketosis: More on ketones and how the body uses them
  3. Tips & tricks for starting (or restarting) low-carb Pt I: Low-carb adaptation and on eating more fat.
  4. Tips & tricks for starting (or restarting) low-carb Pt II: Electrolytes, supplements and hydration
  5. Resolving to diet in 2012 (What happens if you keep stopping and starting)
  6. Why We Get Fat: Filling out some gaps in Gary Taubes’ story.

Dr Eades’ blog, plus his and his wife’s books, are a complete education.

Get them; read them!

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B002SXIENW" locale="us" height="160" src="" width="102"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B001NLKW9Y" locale="us" height="160" src="" width="105"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0471454052" locale="us" height="160" src="" width="100"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="047145415X" locale="us" height="160" src="" width="106"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0446678678" locale="us" height="160" src="" width="98"]

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”


When you’re following the ketogenic diet one of the most often asked questions is, “How can I increase my fat intake?”  Well, if you have a good-quality mayonnaise, made from keto-friendly ingredients, that’s a very tasty and healthy way.

But the rumour has it that making mayo is difficult.

No it’s not!

This is the easiest recipe we have ever come across, and here’s my first attempt at a new way of presenting recipes, to make them as easy as possible, even for people for whom cooking is a challenge.


Nutrition Information

Grams /100 mls Grams / Tablespoon Serving Hellmann’s Grams / 100 mls
Fat 84.84 12.73 79.0
Carbohydrate 0.92 0.14 1.5
Protein 3.77 0.57 1.0

This recipe has 7% more fat than Hellmann’s, only 61% of the carbs of Hellmann’s, and 377% more protein!

Printer Friendly Version

You can download a printer-friendly version of the recipe, complete with nutrition information, by clicking here: Keto Mayo Recipe

I have been doing some cooking (and so has Susan).

The mayo recipe is derived from someone else, but we’ve lost track of who–if you recognise it, please say and we’ll acknowledge you.

The Frittata and the salsa are all mine!

Quick and Easy Mayo

Designed to look and taste like Hellman’s, but without the canola oil and other nasty stuff, and without putting money in Monsanto’s pocket (yes, they own Hellman’s, it seems).

Also, this recipe doesn’t call for that “pour the oil very slowly” stuff.  Just pour all the ingredients in a tall cup and blend with a stick blender. Success every time!

Click here (or right click and click “Save As”) for the Quick and Easy Paleo Mayo recipe.

James’ Frittata

Clothilde Ermintrude

Clothilde and Ermintrude

Harriet and Juanita

Sort of like a cross between a quiche (but without the pastry), a Spanish tortilla (but no potato), or an omelette (but much easier).

Especially good if you have lots of eggs (we do: we have our own chickens.  Thank you girls!)

This recipe is for experimenting: learn the basics, and then experiment with the optional ingredients.

Click here (or right click and click “Save As”) for the James Paleo Keto Frittata recipe.

 James’ Salsa Recipe

If you don’t like sharp and hot flavours, then this isn’t for you.  But if you, like me, hanker after vinegary, chilli flavours, then this will accompany almost anything!  And as tomatoes come into season, substitute the canned tomatoes with fresh ones: preferably home grown.

Click here (or right click and click “Save As”) for the James Salsa Recipe recipe.

“In my diet plan it says I can eat as much as I want.  How does that work?”

“I’m confused: should I count calories or not?”

“My doctor says that Gary Taubes is wrong: you can’t contradict physics.  I’m fat because I eat too much and don’t exercise enough”

We hear this all the time, and questions like this appear in Facebook groups and diet forums all the time.  Frequently with people saying something like “excuse me for being stupid“.

We will put that last one to bed straight away.  You are not stupid!

Let’s deal with “eat as much as you want“.  First, how much do you want?

Your body has sophisticated control mechanisms to tell you:

  1. You’re hungry: you need fuel (food)
  2. You are full: you’ve had enough

Click this picture: you may get a surprise!

However, unfortunately you have two completely different mechanisms in this control system:

  1. Biochemistry
  2. Psychology and emotions

Frequently our psychology and emotions around food get messed up.  It starts with parental messages to eat up all your dinner or children will starve in Africa and is then manipulated by the HUGE sums of money that advertisers spend to program our brains to make us eat.

Our biochemistry also gets messed up.  When I was a lad growing up in England, Chinese restaurants were  novelty.  There was a piece of “received wisdom” that said that you would feel hungry again half an hour after eating Chinese food. Cecil Adams in “The Straight Dope” even wrote an article about it. (Click those links: they are more fun than this blog post is likely to be!)

The point is that some food makes you feel full up, some food leaves you hungry and there is some food that actually makes you hungry (mostly manufactured food, manufactured by firms with no interest in you being healthy, just in you buying more of their products.

So, leaving on one side the psychology and emotions for a moment, if you STOP eating the stuff that doesn’t make you feel food, and replace it by eating the stuff that does make you feel full, then we can say “eat as much as you like”, reckoning that you will get to feel full quite quickly, that that will be “as much as you like” and you’ll eat less, and lose weight.

But notice what I said there: “you will eat less”.  Let’s move on.

(Oh, by the way, highly processed carbs and sugars are the things liable to make you want to eat more, and fatty and spicy food are likely to make you want to eat less.  ”Diet” versions don’t help.  To understand just a little of what’s going on here, first glance at “Is it true that drinking diet sodas like Diet Coke make you crave carbohydrates?”  You will notice that there is one “yes” vote and one “no” vote, the “no” coming from Snopes, which I usually trust.  But then just glance through this Mercola article: “Aspartame — History of Fraud and Deception“.  It’s down the bottom where he says:

Aspartame is the only biochemical warfare product on grocery shelves

that makes me think I need a lot more research before I’ll give it a try!).

Of course, we haven’t dealt with the psychology yet.

You have probably heard this old joke: “I’m on a seafood diet. I see food and I eat it!

There is even a Facebook page with that name, for food jokes :

Q: Why do bakers work so hard?
A: Because they need the dough.

But maybe the “see food” thing isn’t a joke.  Maybe it’s the truth.  Spend a couple of minutes watching this experiment carried out by stage hypnotist Paul McKenna:


You might like to try it for yourself.

And how would it be if someone fed you, rather than you feeding yourself?  My guess is that each mouthful will be smaller and that your “eating speed” will be slower.

I think that we have learned to bypass or over-ride our “satiety” signals, and if we could fix that problem, then we would feel full sooner, and we would eat less.

But notice what I said there: “we would eat less”.

Losing weight is all about eating less.  It’s about doing something that will mean that we are happy to stop eating when we are full.  It is not about forcing ourselves to eat less.  That never, ever works.  And if you think it does, just look around you.  All over the western world for at least the last half century, doctors, nutritionists and diet pundits have been telling overweight people to, “eat less, exercise more”.

Does it look like this advice is working?  I don’t think so.

And then along comes Gary Taubes with his two books, [simpleazon-link asin="1400033462" locale="us"]Good Calories, Bad Calories[/simpleazon-link] ([simpleazon-link asin="0091924286" locale="uk"]The Diet Delusion[/simpleazon-link] in the UK) and [simpleazon-link asin="0307474259" locale="us"]Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It[/simpleazon-link].  The book (WWGF) changed my life.  Here’s why.

There is a subtle subtext behind “If you eat less and exercise more you will lose weight” which says “you are fat because you are greedy and lazy“.  Gee, thanks doc.

When Gary says that this isn’t the way to go with this all the conventional pundits cry “foul”.  They say it’s all a question of physics.  If you take in more energy than you put out, that excess energy has to go somewhere and it will be stored as fat.  Therefore, take in less energy and/or put out more energy, or both.  It’s all physics and Gary Taubes should be burned at the stake (steak?) for saying otherwise.

But Gary does NOT go against the laws of physics.  Read the above paragraph again, but stop at the word “Therefore”.  There should be a whole book, or maybe a whole library, between “stored as fat.” and “Therefore …”

Here’s an example that Gary uses quite a lot.  Think of  a teenage boy.  There comes a certain age where they seem to grow (tall) overnight.  And they seem to be always in the fridge, except when they are in bed.  But you don’t ever hear a parent say “My Tommy has grown six inches in the last three months, it must be because he’s eating too much and not exercising enough”.  He is eating because he is growing.  He lacks energy because all his energy is going into growing.  And why is he growing?  Well, we know, don’t we.  It’s his hormones.

And it’s our hormones that make us grow fatter, too.  It’s just different hormones.  With Tommy it’s testosterone and somatropin, with me it’s insulin.  With Tommy it’s supposed to happen: if his testosterone and somatropin get out of whack he’ll either not grow, or he’ll be a giant.  My insulin is out of whack: I’m only a giant width-wise.  And it was eating too many refined carbohydrates when I was young and foolish (and middle-aged and foolish) as opposed to now when I am old and foolish, that damaged my insulin system.

But I’m getting off subject, or at least on to a subject that I’ll come back to later.

So, Do I have to Count Calories? Yes or No?

Well, it depends (sorry!)  You will only lose weight if you correct that energy balance: eat less or exercise more (actually, exercising more probably won’t help: it’ll just make you hungry).

What we hope is that by eating less processed junk food, less refined carbs, by eating more “real food” (what your grandparents called “food”), by eating a balanced amount of protein and upping the amount of fats that you eat (etc etc: we’ll deal with precisely what elsewhere), you will naturally want to eat less.

The trick to losing weight while eating as much as you like is to change how much you like.

So if you are following your low-carb diet, or your paleo or primal regime or your ketogenic or auto-immune protocol, and you are not losing weight, then you are eating too much … BUT, the answer is not to just cut down, but to find out why.  If you are significantly obese then it is highly likely that switching to a paleo or ketogenic regime will cause you to lose weight, without having to count calories.  You will just naturally want to eat fewer calories.  You’ll feel full up sooner.

But as you get closer to your goal weight, where the margins for calculation are tighter, you may need to exercise more control.  You may need to count something … not necessarily calories: it may be grams of carbs, or it may be getting the macro-nutrient ratios right.  It may be paying better attention to micro-nutrients.  I have heard it said that if we are missing certain micro nutrients in our diet that we may crave certain foods.  I have also heard it said that modern food is only around half as nutrient dense as food that was commonly available 100 years ago.  So, presumably, we need to eat twice as much (and hence get twice as many calories) just to get the same level of micro nutrients.

Or it may be finding a way to re-wire your brain, so that you find more effective ways of supporting starving African children, other than by eating more than you need yourself.

As so many of my articles conclude, it is highly likely that no-one has an off-the-peg answer to your individual question.  Research is needed.  The question is, will you pay a Harley Street nutritionist £125 per hour to do the research, or will you learn about food, nutrition and your own body, and do your own research?

Go on, give me a hint!

Zoe Salmon

Zoe Salmon

Some while ago the BBC made a programme called “The Big Fat Truth About Low Fat Foods“.   I like this programme because they took an ordinary person (well, as ordinary a you can be, being an ex Blue-Peter presenter and an FHM model) and put her on a low-fat, packaged food diet for four weeks, to see what would happen.  She is “ordinary” in the sense that she doesn’t have any particular health problems, is not a diet and nutrition expert, but generally eats a reasonable diet.

(Having said that, I just discovered that she was a contestant in Celebrity Masterchef!!)

For four weeks, model and former Blue Peter presenter Zoe Salmon ditches the fine dining she’s used to and lives on nothing but pre-packaged, highly-processed foods that are labelled either low or lower in fat. She finds out what’s in these foods and how they affect her moods, nutritional levels and, crucially, her weight. She also meets the low calorie converts who say that eating this way isn’t just a diet, but a way of life.

The programme (I think) does for Weight Watchers what “Supersize Me” did for Macdonalds.  I think the programme is a must to show to anyone who thinks your high-fat diet will kill you, and a must for anyone considering Weight Watchers.  Here’s a trailer:


And here’s the who programme (it’s about 50 minutes):


Eating PLANTS!

I have this prejudice that says that British kids aren’t as obese, or as ignorant about food and where it comes from as American kids.  I got a shock last evening.  I was watching a UK TV cooking programme with The Hairy Bikers.  They were cooking outside in a town centre with a live audience.  As they prepared some vegetables and sampled as they went I heard a small boy say “yeuch!  They are eating plants!”  And that, in a very concise nutshell is a probably the biggest problem for our future.

Another British chef, Jamie Oliver, having crusaded about the poor state of food in British schools took his crusade to America and wound up with a TED talk prize.  This 2-minute trailer for his American TV series shows part of the problem:


Did you notice the kids unable to identify a tomato?  In the program (you can explore the whole thing, including Jamie’s prize-winning TED talk, on my blog post “Jamie’s American Food Revolution”) the kids in school couldn’t identify potatoes, tomatoes, onions, etc.

We don’t have to go to extremes.  Maybe 20 years ago we went on vacation and took a couple of my kids’ school friends.  It was a self-catering holiday in France and we made a thing of going to local French markets, buying fresh produce and cooking it ourselves.  My son’s friend was scandalised.  For him, food wasn’t food if it didn’t come in a box or a packet.  He had never seen an onion other than battered onion rings. And this was a middle-class lad with a father who worked for IBM, from a country town in southern England.

If children don’t understand where their food comes from, what food is, how to grow, harvest, prepare and cook food then they are at the mercy of Big-Ag, Big-Food, Big-Pharma.  They will have no option but to get fat, get sick, and be part of the first generation for centuries that died younger than their parents.

Childhood obesity is probably even more worrying than adult obesity in many western societies, and doubly worrying as a parent.  When you’re the one who is obese at least you only have yourself to worry about. So let’s think about what we can do.

Real Organic Food from your local organic farm

Before I begin, let me add to my normal caveat.  I am not medically qualified, I am not a nutritionist, and I’m not a pediatrician.  I wasn’t even a child, but that’s another story!

We all know that the latest diet fad probably won’t help us adults, not least because we’re liable to get a bit OCD about it. That’s the last thing we need to burden our kids with. So what can we do?

A lot of folk think that whatever diet that they are on can just be scaled down for a child, but I think that we need to think a little, first.  There is one thing that children do, all their lives (as children)  that adults don’t do.  And that is … they grow!  They need healthy nutrition even more than us adults, and so I believe the “eat less, exercise more” mantra is even more dangerous for children than it is for adults.  Kids need their vitamins and minerals.

We know (don’t we?) that a junk-food diet isn’t any good for anyone, so I believe that we must begin by educating our children on what is (and what isn’t) “real food”, and switching them gently over to a regime that is significantly lower on carbs (particularly high-glycemic index carbs), lower on wheat and sugar, and higher on good meat (organic, grass-fed) and good vegetables and fruit. For children, paying attention to the nutritional content of the food (micro-nutrients such as vitamins and minerals) is even more important than it is to adults, so if you can get them switched on to growing their own, and to taking good care of the soil that they use to grow their own, then you’re off to a good start.

One of the first things that you can do, I believe, is to start to introduce your kids to where (healthy) food comes from.  If you Google the name of your town with “organic farm” you will, no doubt, find some.  I was inspired to write this blog after a question was posed by a FB friend of mine who lives in the Pacific North West, so I Googled and came up with Bella Organic.  Check out their website: … what a great place to go for a regular family outing.  Our own local farm, Beechcroft, isn’t nearly so organised, but is a lovely place to visit.  Having visited an “old fashioned” farm, see if you can find a CAFO in your area, and just drive past.  You will probably have your child’s interest!

For children, being like the other kids is of extreme importance.  It is something that is, I believe, hard-wired into our genes.  In paleo times being a member of the tribe was a matter of life and death.  You couldn’t survive on your own.  In 21st century western society that has become somewhat perverted: if you aren’t wearing the latest designer label you won’t actually die–but it feels that way to kids, so we must avoid making them feel different.

Katie Stagliano

Katie’s 40lb cabbage

I think that joining, or making the right social group is really important, and I believe that learning about and becoming highly involved with growing and eating real food is important, so here are a couple of great role models.

First, is  Katie Stagliano, founder of Katie’s Krops.

Katie was given a cabbage seedling in a pot in a class at school.  She brought it home, tended it every day, and it grew into a 40lb cabbage!  Katie took the cabbage to a local food kitchen where they were feeding disadvantaged and homeless people and it inspired her to encourage other kids to do the same.  Now, all over America children, encouraged by Katie’s Krops, are planting gardens in schools, community centers and their own back yards, and are using the produce both for their own nutrition, but, more importantly, to help others.

Why is that more important?

Because children are naturally charitable.  They care about things more than the average adult, and if they are growing food to help disadvantaged people they will probably care more about the quality of food they are growing than if they are just growing it for themselves.  And as parents, we want them to care about quality food!

There are lots of tips on Katie’s website; they even have a grant program, if you need some money to help get a garden going.  And they have a Facebook page where you can follow what’s happening in the Katie’s Krops world.

Coral of Coralganics

The next person I would like to introduce is Coral, of Coralganics.  As it says on the “About” section of her Facebook page:

Coral is an eight year old unschooler and very passionate about nutrition! She hopes to help other kids learn how to eat and live more healthfully by eating real, whole foods, avoiding GMOs, and reading labels! She is currently making YouTube videos to help educate other children about exactly what is in the processed and fast foods that are being fed to many children today.

Coral has a Facebook page, and a You Tube channel.  Here is her first ever video, looking at whether WhoNu? cookies are as good as they’re cracked up to be (they aren’t!):


So: there are a couple of good role models who I hope may get your kid to start taking an interest in food, real food.

Lastly, there is Bettina Elias Siegel’s website, The Lunch  This is a website by an adult, for adults, but her passion is to improve kids’ food, both in school and outside.  She isn’t going for paleo, or even particularly low carb, but she is passionate about getting children to eat real food, not processed.

This video is by Bettina.  If it is “too young” for your child, then get them to watch it with you, and produce a critique, or say how they feel it relates to them.  Everything we are doing here is to encourage our kids to be passionate about food and the potential it has to either make us sick, or make us healthy.


Kids Growing Food

Before I leave this subject, let me just say it’s worth Googling “Kids Grow Food” and see what you get.  There a lot of resources out there: maybe you can set up a children’s garden in your local church or community center, or your kid’s school.  It’s important that they have a group of friends with the same passion.  Here’s a last video:


OK, so that’s vegetables.  But I am somewhat of a low-carb, paleo, ketogenic diet afficionado, so what about meat and protein?

Happy chickens in an Eglu

Well, Susan and I began keeping chickens after we baby-sat our grandson’s chickens (he had an Eglu and two chooks for a birthday present) for a couple of months while he was on a long vacation.  By the time he came back we were sad to be without chickens, so now we have two and we are getting two more tomorrow.  We don’t have much land, our entire back garden (yard) is about 100′ by 30′, and our hen run is 15′ x 12′.  We get eggs, pets, and top soil generated for us.  We have never had children visiting who weren’t fascinated!  And those eggs are really healthy!

So, we have looked at ways of getting children to understand where their food comes from, ways of getting them to grow healthy food, and ways of helping them understand what is healthy and what is not.  There is, of course, one last step.

They need to know how to cook!

Cooking with Kids

I don’t have a vast experience here (my son is a great cook, but I think that’s maybe more despite me than because of me!), but again, I did some Googling.  I’ll leave you to do the same (and refer you to the Jamie Oliver videos, where he spends quite a lot of time introducing both parents and kids to cooking).  For a lot of help and advice, check out this “Cooking with Kids” page on

My last contribution here is to get you to watch this You Tube video of the fabulous Sarah Fragoso of Everyday Paleo, showing how to make paleo mayonnaise, with help from her boys.  These lads will grow up healthy, I am convinced!



For Younger People

Got some real young ones?  This might grab their attention!


Here’s the “Breakfast Edition”:


On Weighing

This last section is, I know, controversial (it has raised some controversy here at home!)  It’s just an idea … see how it fits with you and your kids.

I have heard people say that you shouldn’t weigh yourself as an adult, and you should avoid the scales even more for a child.

I don’t agree–but I also believe we shouldn’t be obsessing about weight. What we need to do is to “know thy enemy”.

To decide just to ignore weight is to miss an important point … a point that is even more important for children. We live in society and society has norms. One of the norms in our society is that people weigh themselves and weigh their self-esteem at the same time.

It is bad, it is wrong, but it happens. Just to ignore it turns it into the unmentionable “elephant in the room”.

What I think we need to do is to understand the subject in some depth.

So here’s my suggestion.  Set up a science project with your child, to understand body weight.

Here’s the first step. Get your child to weigh themselves every hour, on the hour, for a whole day, and to record the weight on a piece of graph paper (or, for the more tech-savvy, on a spreadsheet with a graph).

Experiment. Weigh before and after having a meal. Weigh before and after going to the bathroom. I am still bemused by the fact that I can weigh less after a heavy meal, and more after a satisfactory bathroom visit! Look at how much the weight fluctuates over the course of a day. I am a large man: my weight can vary by plus or minus 5lbs (roughly 2kgs) over a day. Get your child to find out how much their weight can change over, say, two days (do it over a weekend). You should be able to find out when the “low weight point” of the day is.  You will discover that you can lose or gain a couple of pounds just by weighing at a different time.  It begins to put the whole thing in a different light.

Then just try getting on and off the scales say 10 times in a row, and recording all those weights. That will give you an idea how accurate the scales are.  And, in particular, if your child is a girl, and past puberty, try weighing every day for a month and see how her weight fluctuates. In every case record all the numbers. The two of you will learn a lot about science, a lot about weighing, and a lot about yourselves (you should be doing this alongside your child: maybe get the child to include the whole family in the project).

It will be an eye-opener and will show you that a simple number: “how much I weigh” doesn’t tell you much if taken out of context.

You also have to understand that weighing children has an additional problem that we adults don’t have: they are growing, and we expect them to get heavier as they get taller. Maybe if you weighed every day for a year, and plotted all those measurements on a chart, together with their height, and some other key measurements, you might see some interesting trends.

While you are doing this, you are not aiming for your child to “lose weight”. You are simply running a science project together to collect some data to see what you can learn.  Given that we expect them to weigh more as they grow taller, it might be interesting to divide weight by height, and plot that over time, too.  I suspect that, if the child is beginning to eat more healthily as a result of a growing interest in real food, those numbers might reflect a movement towards leanness.

In that project you might also try weighing before and after a walk, or a run, or a bike-ride, or a swim. What does any of that tell you?

What we are doing here is just developing the child’s sense of interest in their own body, hopefully in a value-free way, hopefully in a way that doesn’t get obsessive.  It is very easy for any of us to begin to obsess about food; but that’s a whole different subject!  (Try looking up “orthorexia” if you really want to scare yourself silly!)

If your child is a bit chubby now (or even obese) remember that they are going to grow taller.  If you get them off of the empty calories of junk food and on to highly nutritious real food, and doing some playing outside in the fresh air, I think it quite likely that they will naturally burn their fat reserves as they grow up, lessening the chance that they continue to grow out!


End of post?  Well, perhaps not, as so many people seem to think there are.  I have written about cholesterol before (“On Statins, Cholesterol and the Like“) but I am still getting questions, so perhaps I’d better explain.  But first a simple test.  Can you tell the difference between the various pictures below?

[hr] [clearboth]





[hr] [clearboth]

We hear about cholesterol and we hear about HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.  HDL and LDL are not cholesterol. They are vehicles for transporting cholesterol, hence the silly question above.

For cholesterol: think “people”.  For HDL think “bus” and for LDL think “taxi”.  HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) and LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) are the vehicles used to carry cholesterol around your body.

Cholesterol is vital: it’s in pretty much every cell of your body, and it is nearly all (over 80%) manufactured in your liver.  The amount of cholesterol derived from dietary sources is pretty low.  After your liver has manufactured cholesterol it is loaded into taxis and shipped out to whichever part of your body needs new cholesterol.  Worn out cholesterol is loaded onto buses and shipped back for repair or discard.

Now, what is of interest is, do you have big taxis or small taxis, and how crowded is the highway?  Buses are no problem, big taxis are no problem; it’s having rush-hour numbers of small taxis that causes hardening of the arteries.

High LDL-P

High LDL-P (Mumbai tuk tuk taxis)
(Courtesy Joel Duncan Photography)

The big taxis come from eating animal-based food, by and large.  The tuk-tuks come from eating carbohydrates. Don’t take it from this old man.  Hear a top expert on “It’s not the passengers, it’s the cars”.  You will hear them talk about particles.  Those are particles of LDL: that’s taxis.  LDL particles come as big and fluffy (big taxis) or small and hard (tuk tuks).  When they talk about LDL-P that’s a count of particles: how crowded the road is.  When they mention atherosclerosis, that’s what we non-medical folk call “hardening of the arteries”.

Here’s Dr Tara Dall:


For more information, the “go-to” place is Chris Masterjohn’s, but he’s not the only one.  The good folks at are also talking about it: “Putting The Myth To Rest: There Is No Such Thing As Bad Cholesterol“.

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I am a member of three on-line “keto communities”, as well as blogging about ketogenic diets myself:

A frequent question in these communities is “what should I eat?”  This question might mean “what proportion of carbs, proteins, and fats should I eat?”  It might mean “what actual foods can I eat, and in what quantities?”  In every case the answer is always “it depends …” which is highly frustrating for the person asking the question.

There are some calculators out there, but quite a few people, especially those less confident as computer users, or less confident with math (or both) have had trouble using them.  This blog post intends to help!

At the moment it is only talking about one calculator, Martin Ankerl‘s Keto Calculator:  This video should explain all.  Below are some links that you might find helpful.  Some notes appear as the video runs: you will find them easier to read if you make the video full screen (click the icon in the bottom right of the video).


kcal or kilo-calories.  It’s all very confusing, but a calorie is the amount of heat that it takes to warm up one cc of water by one degree centigrade.  A Calorie (with a capital “C”), also known as a kilo-calorie (kcal) is what nutritionists use, and most people just lose the “k” and don’t bother with the capital “C”.  So, if you see kcal or kilo-calorie, just know that that is what dieters call a “calorie”.  Summary: don’t worry: ignore the “k”!

Basic Metabolic Rate: The energy it takes to stay alive without losing or gaining weight.

Lean Body Mass: How heavy you would be if you had no body fat.  Note: if you had NO body fat, you would be dead!  You always need some, just to stay alive.

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Body Fat Percentage: What percentage of your weight is body fat.  There are various ways of measuring it.  Many fancy modern bathroom scales will do it for you, if you just step on in bare feet.  Pictures on the left for USA, on the right for UK.

A simpler method is to look at pictures of people, labelled with their body fat, and pick out the nearest to you.  There is a good set of body-fat pictures here.

MFP: My Fitness Pal — software to help you keep a food and exercise log, and work out what you have eaten in terms of carbs, protein and fats.  (It’s free!)  Go to their home page, scroll down a little and watch the video.  I am not going to create a MyFitnessPal “how to” video, because there are dozens on You Tube.  Here’s one I picked at random:


That’s it for now: I will be adding a tutorial on a little later.

Effective Exercise: I believe that Nordic Walking is the best exercise for people on a ketogenic diet.  Overview here, “How to Get Started with Nordic Walking” here, Who can do Nordic Walking here.

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”
There is no excerpt because this is a protected post.

From Junk Food Science

In the low-carb, paleo, keto world, we’re always banging on about the advantages of eating bacon, but some people have concerns.

One set is about eating saturated fat.  Worry not: the “science” that says that saturated fat is bad for your arteries is wrong, but I’ll deal with that elsewhere.  Another concern is is with nitrates and nitrites: don’t they cause cancer?

Well, there seems to be some conflicting evidence, but here are some references that suggest not.  To summarise: bacon is preserved pork: nitrates are naturally occurring substances that have been used for centuries to turn belly pork into bacon.  Nitrates occur in the soil, and in many vegetables; in fact bacon that is advertised as “no added nitrates” is not really telling the truth: they use celery (sounds healthy) which is a good source of nitrates.

One of the posts below opens with this eye-catching question:

Which of these sources will give you the most ingested nitrites:

467 servings of hotdogs

1 serving arugula

2 servings butterhead lettuce

4 servings celery or beets

your spit

The answer is obvious … or is it?

You’ll have to do the reading to find the answer, but I think you’ll be surprised!

It’s a longer story than that, of course, and if you want chapter and verse (some people need to track down the research, and that is important), here are some starting points.

Facts About Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrite
Good or Bad? Nitrates and Nitrites in Food
The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs
Nitrates In Vegetables Protect Against Gastric Ulcers, Study Shows
Does banning hotdogs and bacon make sense?
The “No Nitrites Added” Hoax
Toxicity of Sodium Nitrite (Wikipedia)
The Nitrate and Nitrite Myth: Another Reason not to Fear Bacon
“The fear of nitrates from bacon has no basis in reality”
NTP Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Sodium Nitrite (11MB PDF)

(This list originally compiled by Roger D Enochs)

Roger posted a quote from the PDF:

Under the conditions of this 2-year drinking water study, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in male or female F344/N rats exposed to 750, 1,500, or 3,000 ppm. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 750, 1,500, or 3,000 ppm. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of sodium nitrite in female B6C3F1 mice based on the positive trend in the incidences of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (combined) of the forestomach.
Exposure to sodium nitrite in drinking water resulted in increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia in the forestomach of male and female rats and in the glan- dular stomach of male mice.
Decreased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia occurred in male and female rats.
Further, the USDA standard for for nitrate and nitrite levels in food[2] limits it to 200 ppm for nitrate and nitrite combined. We get much more dietary nitrate from vegetables than from cured meat, unless you eat a diet of primarily cured meat.
As established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the Meat Inspection Regulations cited above, the use of nitrites, nitrates, or combinations of them cannot result in more than 200 parts per million (ppm), calculated as sodium nitrite, in the finished product.
It has been estimated that 10 percent of the human exposure to nitrite in the digestive tract comes from cured meats and 90 percent comes from vegetables and other sources. Nitrates can be reduced to nitrites by certain microorganisms present in foods and in the gastrointestinal tract. This has resulted in nitrite toxicity in infants fed vegetables with a high nitrate level. No evidence currently exists implicating nitrite itself as a carcinogen.
The 200 ppm level is well below the levels used in the above tests (750-5000 ppm), and even those high levels found no links to cancer (at least in rodents). Perhaps there are other health issues, but cancer is the one I always hear about, and the evidence does not appear to be there. A quick search didn’t turn up any research regarding nitrates and the liver.”

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