ketogenic diet

One of the questions that is asked over and over on low carb websites and forums of all persuasions is “what sweeteners can I use”?

Well, I was going to write this blog post all by myself, but I have come across three incredibly useful resources recently, so I will bow to them.

Top 10 Natural Low-carb Sweeteners

First comes a handy list of low-carb sweeteners from the Keto Diet App (I have just bought this and will review it soon).

The list isn’t nearly as comprehensive as the Sugar and Sweetener Guide, below, but covers most of the sweeteners that we get asked about:

  1. Stevia
  2. Erythritol
  3. Xylitol
  4. Mannitol
  5. Chicory root inulin
  6. Raw honey
  7. Coconut palm sugar
  8. Maple syrup
  9. Date syrup
  10. Blackstrap molasses

There are some there that anyone into low-carb would bristle at, never mind if you’re on a ketogenic diet.  However, their “get out of jail free card” as far as I am concerned is this, from that blog post:

Sugar is sugar – no matter how healthy it is, it will impair your weight loss.

Hear, hear!  And probably kick you out of ketosis, and wreck your blood glucose numbers if you’re a diabetic.  The article describes each one, with pros and cons, and lists them in terms of sweetness, net carbs, glycemic index and do on.

Shame it doesn’t mention Luo Han Guo, which should be in there as sweetness index 300, 0 carbs, 0 GI, and a pro of not having the bitter aftertaste that some find stevia has.

Sugar and Sweetener GuideThe Sugar and Sweetener Guide

Next is an amazing website: The Sugar and Sweetener Guide.  It is a positive encyclopedia of all things sweet, both natural and artificial.

Probably the place to start is the “Comprehensive All Sweetener List” and then look at the “Sweetener Values including Calories and Glycemic Index“.  It list sweeteners by “Sweetness Index”.  Given that sucrose has a sweetness index of 1 (and fructose of 1.7, which explains why sucrose tastes less sweet than ordinary table sugar, which is a mixture of sucrose and fructose, and powdered glucose, sweetness index 0.75, tastes even less sweet), I was amazed to discover that there is a natural sweetener, Thaumatin, with a sweetness index of 2000, and an artificial sweetener, Neotame, with a sweetness index of 8000!  The mind boggles.

The Sweetener Book

Lastly there is The Sweetener Book by D. Eric Walters, Ph.D.  If the other two resources haven’t answered all your questions, then this might do it!  You can buy a paperback: [simpleazon-link asin="0989109208" locale="us"]The Sweetener Book (US Edition)[/simpleazon-link], or [simpleazon-link asin="0989109208" locale="uk"]The Sweetener Book (UK Edition)[/simpleazon-link] or the US Kindle Edition, or the UK Kindle Edition.

Again, it covers an encyclopaedic amount of information about sweeteners that everyone is discussing, and many you’ll only have heard of if you’re a food scientist.

You can review the contents of the book on the website: http://www.sweetenerbook.com/

Food Babe Investigates Stevia: Good or Bad?

At the head of this post I said I had three important links.  SInce then, I have discovered this article by the Food Babe in which she looks critically at the way some (most?) commercial brands of stevia re made.  In particular, some of the (“Stevia in the Raw”, for instance) has more erythritol than stevia, and the erythritol is made from GMO corn).

I don’t agree with 100% of what she says.  At the bottom of the post she says

And when all else fails, choose a suitable alternative and forget stevia altogether. Lisa uses honey and pure maple syrup, and I personally prefer coconut palm sugar, since it is low glycemic (making it more diabetic friendly)

Well, if you’ve followed some of the links above, especially the “Sweetener Values including Calories and Glycemic Index“, you will have formed your own opinion about honey, maple syrup and coconut palm sugar.  All depends whether you are T2 diabetic and/or if you’re trying to stay in ketosis.

There is always much talk of which butter is best and which is grass-fed.

Since I was a little lad by favourite butter has always been Danish Lurpack, unsalted.  It’s almost sinful how delicious its creamy taste is!

So I figured I better find out if it’s grass-fed, and e-mailed them.  Today I got this reply:

Good Morning ,
Thank you for contacting Lurpak .
Lurpak is produced in Denmark.
I can assure you that all our cows are grass
fed in summer, however when the weather
conditions are not suitable, they are kept
in shed where they are allowed to roam
freely and fed supplements.
Lurpak also produces the organic range,
where the milk used comes from cows that
are only grass fed.

Hope this answers your question .
Warm Regards
Tasneem Fadal

I know this post looks like an advert, but I have no commercial link with Lurpack.

[simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B000V3IV3O" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/317R0BJJLuL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]Folk on the ketogenic diet usually test their ketogenic status using Ketostix.  You wee on them and (hopefully) they go pink to purple.

However, they are significantly less than accurate!

Firstly, as you head towards “nutritional ketosis” two substances are produced that are found in the urine: acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate.  It is the latter, beta-hydroxybutyrate that we are interested in, but, as Phinney and Volek say:

the strips that test for ketones in the urine detect the presence of acetoacetate, not beta-hydroxybutyrate

They go on:

In the kidney, this process of keto-adaptation is also complex. Over time, urine ketone excretion drops off … This decline in urine ketones happens over the same time-course that renal uric acid clearance returns to normal  and thus may represent an adaptation in kidney organic acid metabolism in response to sustained carbohydrate restriction.

[simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B005CVV2AE" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/515TE8b8jLL._SL160_.jpg" width="106"]So we are not only measuring the wrong thing (acetoacetate vs beta-hydroxybutyrate), but over time acetoacetate excretion drops off (which is why so many people in ketogenic forums and Facebook groups keep asking why they are “no longer in ketosis” (as measured by the Ketostix) when they are being good and sticking to the diet.  Phinney and Volek conclude:

These temporal changes in how the kidneys handle ketones make urine ketone testing a rather uncertain if not undependable way of monitoring dietary response/adherence. Testing serum for beta-hydroxybutyrate is much more accurate but requires drawing blood, and it is expensive because it is not a routine test that doctors normally order.

From [simpleazon-link asin="B005CVV2AE" locale="uk"]The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living[/simpleazon-link]

Well, there’s something they didn’t know when they wrote that: you can now do serum testing (testing the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate in your blood) at home with a simple meter that is similar to a blood glucose meter.

I have recently found a brand-new meter, an upgrade from the Precision Xtra, which is called the Freestyle Optium.  I got mine for free!  Further down this post, I will tell you how (although it may only be possible in the UK).  So what follows between the rules is how it was until recently, and how it may still be outside the UK.

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There are a couple of meters you can use, and they have been tested and compared by Jimmy Moore in his n=1 reports on his own progress with nutritional ketosis.  One of the meters comes out badly in his review: you have to remember that these meters were not intended for the likes of us, who are trying to achieve nutritional ketosis, as defined by Phinney and Volek.

They are designed for Type 1 diabetics who are trying to avoid keto-acidosis (more of this further down this blog post).  Which is why one of the meters just says “LO” for low measurements: that’s good enough (and good news) for someone who is Type 1.

Jimmy comes out in favour of [simpleazon-link asin="B0000537OO" locale="uk"]Precision Xtra Meter[/simpleazon-link], because it is capable of the levels of accuracy that we need.

However, especially if you live outside the USA (like, in the UK, as I do for a significant part of the year) the cost of the test strips for  the Precision Xtra is a serious expense.  In Amazon UK this pack is £66 plus £2 delivery for 10 (yes, that’s right, TEN!) strips. [simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B001EL30TM" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/21xRxYm7hhL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]

That comes to £6.80 every time you do a test.  I suspect you won’t test all that often!  The meter from Amazon.co.uk is £25.48, including delivery.

If you are in the USA, the cheapest place I have found to get a Precision Xtra is MedExSupply.com, where, at the time of writing (August 10, 2013), it was $18.00.  The best source of test strips is Universal Drugstore in Canada, where they come out at $2.00 a strip (plus $7.00 shipping).  UDS need a prescription from your physician:here’s the e-mail they sent me describing what they need: Universal Drugstore e-mail.

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However, that’s the bad news.  Here’s the good news: I just got a brand-new, latest model meter for free, and 10 β-ketone test strips for £16.99.  (Actually, I bought three boxes and paid extra for express delivery.)  That comes out to $2.55 a test.

Optium in hand

Abbott Freestyle Optium

I had got so frustrated with my research that I Googled Abbott (the makers of the Precision Xtra) and discovered that they have a company in the UK, Abbott Diabetes Care.  I called them and asked them about the Precision Xtra and they said that there’s a new model, the Freestyle Optium, and would I like them to send me one for free.  I said yes, and two days later it arrived.  It is a very cool little machine!

It measures both blood glucose and blood ketones (FreeStyle Optium β Ketone test strips for self-testing your blood ketones).

After quite a bit of Googling I found by far the cheapest source of these test strip on eBay: Freestyle Optium Beta B-Ketone Test Strips Pack Size 10.

If you want one too, call Abbott Diabetes Care in the UK on 0500 467 466 (it’s even a free phone number).

If you find information about this for other countries, let me know and I’ll add it here.  And when my test strips arrive next Tuesday, I’ll let you know how I get on.

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See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

The blog of Dr Michael Eades contains some tips about ketosis that:

  1. I have often found helpful,
  2. I frequently have trouble finding
  3. Make Hootsuite fall over

So I thought I’d usefully put them all in one place:

  1. Low-carbers beware the breathalyzer: On ketones, where they come from, where they go to. “The heart, for example, operates about 28 percent more efficiently on ketones than it does on glucose.”
  2. Metabolism and ketosis: More on ketones and how the body uses them
  3. Tips & tricks for starting (or restarting) low-carb Pt I: Low-carb adaptation and on eating more fat.
  4. Tips & tricks for starting (or restarting) low-carb Pt II: Electrolytes, supplements and hydration
  5. Resolving to diet in 2012 (What happens if you keep stopping and starting)
  6. Why We Get Fat: Filling out some gaps in Gary Taubes’ story.

Dr Eades’ blog, plus his and his wife’s books, are a complete education.

Get them; read them!

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B002SXIENW" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51BsLAYwWJL._SL160_.jpg" width="102"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B001NLKW9Y" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51%2BZBJsJfmL._SL160_.jpg" width="105"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0471454052" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51IwpAnMmSL._SL160_.jpg" width="100"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="047145415X" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51XmCUDx7hL._SL160_.jpg" width="106"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0446678678" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/5199Rqf3hWL._SL160_.jpg" width="98"]

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

 

When you’re following the ketogenic diet one of the most often asked questions is, “How can I increase my fat intake?”  Well, if you have a good-quality mayonnaise, made from keto-friendly ingredients, that’s a very tasty and healthy way.

But the rumour has it that making mayo is difficult.

No it’s not!

This is the easiest recipe we have ever come across, and here’s my first attempt at a new way of presenting recipes, to make them as easy as possible, even for people for whom cooking is a challenge.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2q9otbAMkE

Nutrition Information

Grams /100 mls Grams / Tablespoon Serving Hellmann’s Grams / 100 mls
Fat 84.84 12.73 79.0
Carbohydrate 0.92 0.14 1.5
Protein 3.77 0.57 1.0

This recipe has 7% more fat than Hellmann’s, only 61% of the carbs of Hellmann’s, and 377% more protein!

Printer Friendly Version

You can download a printer-friendly version of the recipe, complete with nutrition information, by clicking here: Keto Mayo Recipe

Gary Taubes

Peter Attia

Most people with an interest in overcoming obesity will have heard of Gary Taubes, especially if you’re a regular reader of Live Free From Obesity: I mentioned him originally in Why We Get Fat by Gary Taubes, and Vegetarian or Carnivore? You choose!, amongst other blogs.

In fact when I first read Gary’s [simpleazon-link asin="0307474259" locale="us"]Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It[/simpleazon-link] he immediately became a hero of mine.

Gary is a science journalist, rather than a practising scientist (although, I happen to believe, with a sharper scientific mind than many who are practising scientists).  For a significant part of his career he has majored in writing about bad science–which is what first got him interested in nutrition.  But whereas when he was writing about the bad science of cold fusion he was content to just tell the story, he has become much more deeply involved with nutrition and, last September (2012), with Peter Attia, he set up the Nutrition Science Initiative (NuSI).

I have always found both Gary and Peter quite scary: they have brains much sharper than mine (and I’m no fool), and they also have a level of personal discipline and persistence that I can only envy.  So I was pretty much moved to tears when I watched Peter’s recent TEDMED talk, when he, too was almost moved to tears.  See what you think.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3oI104STzs

For a less emotional, more factual introduction to NuSI and its work, spend three minutes with this video:

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmfA9XFw-uU

Peter is also running a blog covering some of the most burning questions that individuals have: what should I eat, should I be concerned about cholesterol, how can I protect myself from the major “diseases of civilisation” on his own website, The Eating Academy.  To begin to study what Peter has to say, start on the Eating Academy’s “Start Here” page.

Peter is at pains to explain scientific concepts in everyday language, but I have to say, his blogs sometimes make me work hard, and I suspect they may leave some of the readers of Live Free From Obesity gasping for air!

Don’t worry, I will make it my task to translate the more difficult posts into still simpler language, so that people with little of no scientific training, but who are eager to understand Why We Get Fat, And What To Do About It, can take the news on board!

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0307474259" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51Ni96jsZzL._SL160_.jpg" width="104"] [simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0307949435" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51tR7-zIiFL._SL160_.jpg" width="98"] [simpleazon-image align="left" asin="1400033462" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41ikBliWK8L._SL160_.jpg" width="105"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="0091924286" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41zvRZLsE4L._SL160_.jpg" width="97"]

The mainstay of our Keto life are the amazing keto rolls.  When people ask “what is keto?”, rather than tell them what we don’t eat, we give them some crispy bacon in a keto roll, and tell them that this is what we do eat (plenty of butter on the roll, too).

Then we tell them that there’s no flour or sugar in the roll.  It tends to go easily after that!Keto Rolls 01 Keto Rolls 02 Keto Rolls 03

To get our version of the recipe, right click here: Keto Rolls, and select “Save As” (or whatever your browser says).  There are many other versions!

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Update!

It turns out that Susan has a new preferred keto roll recipe from nutritional blogger Maria Emmerich.  Susan says that the recipe above is good, but not reliable.  Sometimes the rolls are fine (just look at them in those pictures!) and sometimes they come out looking like … well, sort of flattened pancakes.  And solid!

Here’s Maria, making keto bread:

[vimeo clip_id="68001848"]

And you can find more details of Maria’s recipe on her blog page “Toasted Sub Sandwich and Panini” (Scroll down until you get to: “HEALTHIFIED” SUB (June 2013 update!)).

Here’s a PDF of our version of Maria’s recipe (right click and “save as” here).

… and my ultimate in gastro-gasmic gustatory heaven is to slice a keto roll and put the two pieces, cut side down in the frying pan while cooking the bacon!

I have to see the new diabetic nurse at my GP surgery this morning (no more avoiding her now I have to take Warfarin, and need to visit the GP much more often!)

I anticipate that she won’t have heard of the ketogenic diet, so I have written a one-page intro, The Ketogenic Diet, which you can download by clicking that link.

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0983490708" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51OSaAmDQJL._SL160_.jpg" width="107"]  [simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0983490716" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51jgvabe32L._SL160_.jpg" width="107"]  [simpleazon-image align="left" asin="0307474259" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51Ni96jsZzL._SL160_.jpg" width="104"]

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See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

I am a member of three on-line “keto communities”, as well as blogging about ketogenic diets myself:

A frequent question in these communities is “what should I eat?”  This question might mean “what proportion of carbs, proteins, and fats should I eat?”  It might mean “what actual foods can I eat, and in what quantities?”  In every case the answer is always “it depends …” which is highly frustrating for the person asking the question.

There are some calculators out there, but quite a few people, especially those less confident as computer users, or less confident with math (or both) have had trouble using them.  This blog post intends to help!

At the moment it is only talking about one calculator, Martin Ankerl‘s Keto Calculator: http://keto-calculator.ankerl.com/.  This video should explain all.  Below are some links that you might find helpful.  Some notes appear as the video runs: you will find them easier to read if you make the video full screen (click the icon in the bottom right of the video).

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyRnunLjDvI

kcal or kilo-calories.  It’s all very confusing, but a calorie is the amount of heat that it takes to warm up one cc of water by one degree centigrade.  A Calorie (with a capital “C”), also known as a kilo-calorie (kcal) is what nutritionists use, and most people just lose the “k” and don’t bother with the capital “C”.  So, if you see kcal or kilo-calorie, just know that that is what dieters call a “calorie”.  Summary: don’t worry: ignore the “k”!

Basic Metabolic Rate: The energy it takes to stay alive without losing or gaining weight.

Lean Body Mass: How heavy you would be if you had no body fat.  Note: if you had NO body fat, you would be dead!  You always need some, just to stay alive.

[simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B00BKRQ4E8" locale="us" height="107" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/31Bq256DbwL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B00BKRQ4E8" locale="uk" height="107" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/31Bq256DbwL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="left" asin="B0077L8YOO" locale="us" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41Gn7SxiNWL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"][simpleazon-image align="right" asin="B0077L8YOO" locale="uk" height="160" src="http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41Gn7SxiNWL._SL160_.jpg" width="160"]

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Body Fat Percentage: What percentage of your weight is body fat.  There are various ways of measuring it.  Many fancy modern bathroom scales will do it for you, if you just step on in bare feet.  Pictures on the left for USA, on the right for UK.

A simpler method is to look at pictures of people, labelled with their body fat, and pick out the nearest to you.  There is a good set of body-fat pictures here.

MFP: My Fitness Pal — software to help you keep a food and exercise log, and work out what you have eaten in terms of carbs, protein and fats.  (It’s free!)  Go to their home page, scroll down a little and watch the video.  I am not going to create a MyFitnessPal “how to” video, because there are dozens on You Tube.  Here’s one I picked at random:

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReLbeXq0vTI

That’s it for now: I will be adding a tutorial on http://www.eatthismuch.com/ a little later.

Effective Exercise: I believe that Nordic Walking is the best exercise for people on a ketogenic diet.  Overview here, “How to Get Started with Nordic Walking” here, Who can do Nordic Walking here.

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

Joseph Arcita, Before and After

This post is a meta-guide!

(That means it’s a guide to a guide).

This is Joseph Arcita: on the left is a “before” picture and on the right is “after”.  Click the pictures to read Joseph’s story.

Part of his story is his use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as his nutritional plan.  KD is something that interests me greatly: I am a frequent contributor to Mark Maunder’s Basic Ketogenic Diet blog and to two Facebook groups: The Ketogenic Diet Group (it’s a closed group, but you can ask to join), and Ketogenic Dieters, an open group with close to 500 members.

And I have blogged about this stuff before: On Ketogenic Diets back in December 2012, particularly looking at the reports of the effects of ketosis on cancer, and I also summarised and commented on some (203!) of the comments on Mark’s blog “203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet” in February 2013.

See also:

Ketogenic What is a Ketogenic Diet, in a nutshell?
Ketogenic A Guide to Ketosis
Ketogenic What is the Ketogenic Diet Good For?
Ketogenic Tips for Starting and Restarting Ketosis
Ketogenic On Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic How to Use the Keto Calculator
Ketogenic Ketone Testing
Ketogenic A one-page intro to Ketogenic Diets, to hand to medical sceptics
Ketogenic 203 Comments on Mark Maunder’s “Basic Ketogenic Diet”

On the FB groups people are often asking how to get started, and there is food advice there.  But today someone pointed me to Joseph Arcita’s “A Guide to Ketosis“.  It has to be one of the most comprehensive guides I’ve seen.  I hope he turns it into a book.

It is so comprehensive that you might like to know what’s in it: here’s the Table of Contents (copied and pasted from his site, so all of these links are clickable).  I have one or two minor points of contention (like there is no “good” and “bad” cholesterol; it’s all good, and you need it … but what he probably means is small-particle Low-Density-Lipoprotein) and I’ll discuss those at the end of this post.  But if you never get that far, don’t worry: the man is a hero!  Joseph says:

Here is the guide to ketosis. The contents of this article can be located here. If you’re currently wondering what on earth ketosis even is, then you’re in luck for I plan not only to befuddle but also to enlighten. All you have to do is read on.

I’ve personally had fantastic results on keto, and I really believe in the validity of this diet – not only in terms of fat-loss, but also in terms of health-gain. There is a lot of understandable skepticism and tons of misconceptions about keto; I want to let newcomers know, however surprising it may be, that keto (or at least a diet low in grains/sugars and high in fats) is a very healthy diet with numerous benefits.

This guide is very long so I’ve partitioned this post into subsections. The links contained within the contents are ‘clickable’ and will transport you directly to that section. You can also right click and select “copy link address” of a particular section/section title, and you can either bookmark it so that you can return to a specific section easily or you can give the link to a friend if you want them to read a particular section. If you want to return to the contents of the page simply click on the ‘upwards’ arrows that are next to each of the section titles within the main article.

I. Why You Should Care About Ketosis: The Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet
1A. Ketosis Increases Neuronal Stabilization and Mental Focus
1B. Ketosis Promotes the Loss of Body-Fat and LDL Cholesterol
1C. Ketosis Eliminates Various Ailments such as Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension
1D. Ketosis Treats Several Diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Various Cancers
1E. Ketosis Promotes Cardiovascular Health
1F. Ketosis Preserves Lean-Body Mass
1G. One Will Lose Body-fat More Quickly on Keto Than Not
1H. Ketosis Blunts Appetite and Increases Meal Satiety

NOTE:  Unless you are of a VERY scientific frame of mind, SKIP SECTION TWO!!!

Summary: Metabolism is how your body gets energy.
Human bodies can do it a number of ways
You can “burn” glucose, or you can “burn” fat.
How this happens is pretty complicated: show it to you doctor; there’s probably an evens chance that he/she won’t understand it, either!
Quoting Joseph:

In other words, under a ketogenic metabolism, the body uses dietary and bodily fats as its primary energy source.

It is possible to induce the initiation of this metabolism thru a careful diet; this diet must contain limited amounts of carbohydrates, sugars, and proteins, and should be comprised primarily of fats.

II. Understanding Ketosis; An Overview of Metabolism 
2A. Metabolism Defined
2B. The Krebs Cycle
2C. Glycolysis
2D. Fat Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation
2E. Citrate Synthase Inhibition and Beta-ketothiolase Activation
2F. Ketogenesis and Ketosis

He refers to LBM=Lean Body Mass — what would be left if you lost all of your fat.  You never do want to lose all of your fat, but most of us could do with less fat and more lean.

He also refers to “energy deficit”.  In a nutshell: if you are big you won’t need to count calories at first, because a keto diet leaves you feeling full and you won’t eat so much.  But weight loss always does require consuming less calories than you use, so as you get close to your goal weight, or close to your goal for lean body mass, you may need to count calories.

III. The Basics of the Ketogenic Diet 
3A. Entering Ketosis: A Macro Ratio for Keto

PUFAs: summary: you will lose weight faster:

 if a majority of your fat percentage comes from things like seeds, nuts, oils, and fatty fish

It also says that there is NO science that says that butter is bad for you (you’ll see why if you get the science; otherwise skip to section 3C.)

3B. Saturated vs. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
3C. Sample Ketogenic Meal Plan
3D. The Wonders of Fiber
3E. How to Enter Ketosis Quickly, Easily, and Reliably
3F. How to Know You’re Under Ketosis
3G. The Gloom of Induction
3H. Losing Body-Fat
3I. Building Muscle-Mass

Summary: Don’t do intensive exercise once you’re in ketosis.  My own recommendation is Nordic Walking: http://www.WalkingForHappiness.co.uk

3J. Aerobic Exercise
3K. Glycogen Refeeding
3L. Reentering Glycolysis Correctly
3M. A list of Ketogenic Foods
3N. Step by Step Guide to the SKD, TKD, and CKD

IV. Keto Testimonials 
4A. ladysixstring
4B. Dominaterisk
4C. sepatown
4D. vgisverbose

V. Useful Resources and Websites for the Keto-Minded 
5A. The Cook’s Thesaurus
5B. Restaurant Nutrition Facts
5C. Keto Macro-Nutrient Calculator
5D. Keto Goods Online
5E. Keto Recipes Galore
5F. Further Information

VI. Keto FAQ 
6A. What is the ketogenic diet in simple terms?
6B. Is ketosis unhealthy?
6C. Is ketosis unnatural?
6D. How can you lose fat if you eat fat?
6E. Is it best to bulk on keto or on a normal diet?
6F. Are ketostix reliable?
6G. Please leave any questions in the comments.

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